Glossary

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  • "Target"

    Target - Synonymous with destination, a target is a file, device or any type of location to which data are moved or copied. Many computer commands involve copying data from one place to another. One says that the computer copies from the source to the...
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  • Above Mean Sea Level

    The term Above Mean Sea Level (MSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level datum.
    Contrail® Views29
  • Acknowledge

    Contrail® provides an interface to track when a user presses a button acknowledging an alarm. This records the user and time when the alarm was acknowledged. Alarms must be acknowledged, either by a user or automatically, before they can become inactive....
    Contrail® Views24
  • Acknowledged

    An alarm that has been acknowledged, either by the auto-acknowledge function or by a manual acknowledge.
    Contrail® Views29
  • Active Alarms

    This is a list of all Active Alarms - those that have not been acknowledged, cleared, or both.
    Contrail® Views34
  • Address

    Addressing is the ability to include postal addressing and geo-location information to a location. The addressing is an optional attribute. The stored latitude and longitude is in decimal degrees.A location must have an address or latitude and longitude...
    Inventory Views32
  • Alarm

    Current, un-cleared warning.
    Contrail® Views43
  • Alarm Rule Equation

    An Alarm condition set as a logical equation that evaluates sensor values, other values, time periods, etc. to determine if an alarm should be set and/or a notification sent.
    Contrail® Views34
  • Alarm Title

    Alarm Titles include the following: Alarm, Freezing, Heartbeat, Min Voltage, Repeater Status, Temp Too Hot, Temperature Low, Test, Test Precipitation, Test Stage, Wind High.
    Contrail® Views30
  • ALERT

    Automated Local Evaluation in Real-Time. ALERT is radio-based transmission protocol that was developed for low power, low bandwidth (300 baud), real-time transmission of hydrometeorological data.
    Contrail® Views32
  • ALERT Frequency

    An ALERT frequency is shared by many transmitters which transmit ALOHA messages and have potential for collisions and data loss.
    TDMA Views25
  • ALERT rollovers

    ALERT data are limited to the range of 0 to 2047. As data goes above 2047, or below 0, the values wrap, which can cause large offsets for simplistic data handling.
    Contrail® Views24
  • ALERT2 Frequency

    An ALERT2 frequency used for TDMA is defined by a frame length, block length, and slot lengths, that is divided into TDMA slots, which are then allocated to transmitters on the frequency.
    TDMA Views37
  • ALERT2™

    ALERT2 is the next generation upgrade and replacement for ALERT. The protocol has been developed through a Technical Working Group (ALERT2 TWG) through the National Hydrologic Warning Council (NHWC). It is designed to be backward compatible with ALERT,...
    Contrail® Views24
  • ALOHA

    ALOHA is a frequency use protocol in which transmitters transmit at any time when they have something to say and can potentially collide with other transmissions and lose data. The probability of success of ALOHA transmissions can be calculated, assuming...
    TDMA Views45
  • Analytics

    Different to the On-Demand reports, Analytics is a reporting mechanism for deep data analysis and predictive maintenance. Sensor Network Performance Monitoring through pre-programmed reports to provide a Sensor-level snapshot of hydrometeorologic activity...
    Contrail® Views31
  • API Key

    Universally unique identifier (UUID) required to access Contrail® Camera API methods from external applications.
    Camera Views40
  • Block Length

    The block size is the minimum time interval possible for an ALERT2 transmission. In the ALERT2 specification, it is 250 milliseconds (ms), and is the smallest time that can be used for subdividing a frequency's frame into individual TDMA offsets and...
    TDMA Views38
  • Bookmark

    A custom link saved into Contrail® that can be used to access a page or graph in Contrail, or an external website.
    Contrail® Views28
  • Bytes

    Number of bytes to be transmitted during the slot.
    TDMA Views30
  • Calculated Load vs. Defined Capacity

    Ratio of incoming bytes over capacity of outgoing slot.
    TDMA Views28
  • Camera

    A Camera is a collection of images from a single source such as a physical camera or images posted on the web. Each Camera requires a license. You will not be able to add a new Camera unless you own a license that has not been activated.
    Camera Views38
  • Capacity

    Number of potential bytes that can be transmitted during the slot length.
    TDMA Views32
  • Categories

    Categories are logical groupings of equipment types defined by Contrail® Inventory administrators. Before adding a model to manufacturers, a Category must be defined for the equipment type. Common categories include: Battery, Solar Panel, Data Logger,...
    Inventory Views32
  • CDEC

    California Data Exchange Center. The California Data Exchange Center (CDEC) installs, maintains, and operates an extensive hydrologic data collection network including automatic snow reporting gauges for the Cooperative Snow Surveys Program and...
    Contrail® Views26
  • CentOS

    CentOS Linux is a rebuild of the freely available sources for Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL)
    Contrail® Popular2 Views50
  • Cleared

    An alarm that has been cleared through the auto clear function.
    Contrail® Views32
  • Client Manager

    The section in the Contrail® program that allows you to add a new client or edit authorization terms of an existing Client.
    Contrail® Views31
  • Clients

    Those persons from other organizations that you have allowed to have access rights to some/all of your sensors, for their own unique programming.
    Contrail® Views24
  • Contact

    A Contact is a unique email address, SMS email address or SMS text message address that can be used for Alarm Deliveries. There is no limit to the number of Contacts. For ease of reference, each Contact should be given a unique descriptive name.
    Contrail® Views42
  • Coordinated Universal Time

    Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. UTC has uniform seconds defined by International Atomic Time (TAI) with leap seconds announced at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earths slowing rotation and other...
    Contrail® Views22
  • Cycles

    Transmission cycles for every receive cycle. Receive transmission frame length divided into the transmit frame length. This supports calculating capacity for each transmission. For each cycle, calculation of number of incoming slots and corresponding...
    TDMA Views24
  • Data Agent

    Package to actively collect information from publicly available web resources. The Data-Agent is designed to scrape information from a web resource and generate a normalized data file.
    Contrail® Views22
  • Data Exchange

    The Data-Exchange API is an HTTP XML interface to Contrail.
    Contrail® Views23
  • Data Quality Flag

    Data quality code assigned to data based upon automated data validation procedures applied to all incoming data. See data quality flags in the table of contents to see the possible values and their meanings.
    Contrail® Views18
  • DIADvisor™

    OneRain’s DIADvisor is a real-time Microsoft Windows application that collects, stores and displays environmental data. The displays include the latest sensor values and area averaged rainfall.
    Contrail® Views24
  • Digi

    Serial-to-IP device
    Contrail® Views36
  • Dynamic SQL

    Dynamic SQL is an enhanced form of Structured Query Language (SQL) that, unlike standard (or static) SQL, facilitates the automatic generation and execution of program statements. This can be helpful when it is necessary to write code that can adjust to...
    Contrail® Views21
  • Finished Value

    This value is the same as the reading value; the value after data conversion is applied.
    Contrail® Views59
  • Frame Capacity

    Number of ALERT2 bytes that can be transmitted over the time period of a single frame on a frequency. ALERT2 transmissions are limited to 5 seconds, so capacity is the number of 5 second periods available with a capacity of 977 bytes each, plus the amount...
    TDMA Views35
  • Frame Free Space

    Bytes capacity of free space over the frame capacity, as a percent free.
    TDMA Views42
  • Frame Length

    Frame Length is used to define the transmission repeat for transmitters on a frequency. For example, a transmitter on a 20 second frame would have an assigned TDMA slot with a predefined offset from the top of the frame and be able to transmit every 20...
    TDMA Views42
  • Frame Load

    Bytes assigned over frame capacity, as a percent load.
    TDMA Views26
  • Frame Offset

    Frames used to be able to be offset from 0:00:00 UTC, but now always have an offset of (zero).
    TDMA Views39
  • Free Space

    Available bytes for the slots transmission. Defined capacity of outgoing slot minus the calculated load. This number gives the remaining capacity of the transmitters slot in the transmitter or transceiver.
    TDMA Views26
  • Frequency

    A specific radio frequency (RF) is a resource used by ALERT and ALERT2 for both transmission and receive of signal. Frequency is usually defined in terms of MHz and is divided into 0.0250 MHz ranges.
    TDMA Views36
  • Gauge Adjusted Radar Rainfall (GARR)

    Gauge Adjusted Radar Rainfall (OneRain’s product StormData™ GARR) marries rain gauge estimates at a point with the spatial distribution information from the National Weather Service NEXRAD radars to give us information about what is happening between...
    Contrail® Views19
  • Group

    A Group is a single address that can send emails or text messages to multiple individuals at once. A Group is created and then Contacts are assigned. There is no limit to the number of Groups or the number of Contacts (members) within a Group. For ease of...
    Contrail® Views45
  • HADS

    Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This is a collection of GOES data - The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS. Real-time and near real-time data acquisition, data processing and data distribution are the...
    Contrail® Views29
  • Hold Off

    Hold Off equations are created to reduce alarm trigger notifications for data that meets an alarm condition, but is a unique situation not resulting in an actual alarm situation. An example would be wind causing a wave effect in a stream, resulting in a...
    Contrail® Views39
  • icon(s)

    An icon is a graphic selected by the System Administrator to help visualize a point on a map. The icon may have a significant value, such as a plane icon identifying a site located at or near an airport. The icons represent sites and sensors, and change...
    Contrail® Views20
  • IFLOWS

    The Federal Integrated Flood Observing and Warning System (IFLOWS), created in the late 1970’s to assist flood-prone communities, is a cost-sharing cooperative venture between the National Weather Service (NWS) and seven flood-prone Appalachian states...
    Contrail® Views23
  • Images

    An image is a single photo associated with a Camera. A collection of images can be viewed at each Camera. Images are stored within Contrail® Camera based on the Retention period defined at the Camera.
    Camera Views29
  • Incoming Slot Load

    Bytes carried by the sum of incoming slots.
    TDMA Views42
  • Incoming Slots

    Number of slots on input channel and corresponding total time.
    TDMA Views30
  • Input System

    System defined to load data into Contrail.
    Contrail® Views30
  • Invoice

    Request for payment
    General Information Views25
  • Items

    An inventory item is an asset to be uniquely tracked. Every inventory item must have a unique serial number by model. Every item in the inventory system has many properties associated with it that allow tracking of where it is located, what model or type...
    Inventory Views46
  • Last Reported

    Last Reported - Last valid good record. Users with privileges to see in-valid data can see the records.
    Contrail® Views24
  • License Key

    Unique 36 character License Key provided with a purchase Contrail Field Decoder License.
    Used to activate Software to specific machine.
    Decoder Views31
  • Locations

    An inventory location is a uniquely identifiable location where an inventory item resides. Examples of inventory locations include fixed installations, short and long-term storage points like warehouses and scrap heaps, or transient locations like...
    Inventory Views49
  • Manufacturers

    Manufacturers produce models or equipment. A Manufacturer is required of every model that an inventory asset is associated with. Common manufacturers are High Sierra Electronics, Campbell Scientific, and Power Sonic.
    Inventory Views22
  • Message Type

    Calculated.
    TDMA Views26
  • METAR

    METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations which is analogous to the SA coding currently used in the U.S. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather Report. METAR is predominantly...
    Contrail® Views25
  • Mobile IceSight™

    An RWIS mobile surface condition sensor that provides real time surface weather condition of roadways. It uses infrared technology to detect hazardous ice, snow, or wet conditions without embedding any sensors in the pavement.
    Connect Views41
  • Mobile Surface Sentinel™

    A precision instrument that provides surface temperature and air temperature, in real-time, from a moving vehicle to an in-cab display unit. Connects wirelessly to the Mobile Display Unit (MDU) for simple installation, the Mobile Surface Sentinel™...
    Connect Views42
  • Model Attributes

    Most manufacturers release equipment with a part number that has assumed attributes. Any configurable attribute or variation that does not have a unique model (part number) can be tracked by defining model attributes.
    Inventory Views27
  • Models

    Models are the equipment associated with a manufacturer with a unique part number used for ordering. It is important to name the model as referenced by the manufacturer. An example of a specific model is the CR200 Data logger, manufactured by Campbell...
    Inventory Views33
  • Mosaic

    Collection of the latest image from each camera displayed together in a responsive design that maintains aspect ratios.
    Camera Views18
  • Movie

    A Movie is a collection of images stitched together.
    Camera Views26
  • Network

    A network is a combination of frequencies, receivers, transmitters, transceivers used for ALERT and/or ALERT2. A network serves one or more agencies.
    TDMA Views29
  • NOAA Tides

    NOAA Tides data feed - The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's vast collection of oceanographic and meteorological data (historical and real-time), predictions, and nowcasts and forecasts. NOAA Tides and Currents, managed by the Center for...
    Contrail® Views19
  • NWS

    National Weather Service - Official US weather, marine, fire and aviation forecasts, warnings, meteorological products, climate forecasts and information about meteorology.
    Contrail® Views26
  • NWSLI

    National Weather Service Location Identifier, defined by the NWS and often used in Contrail® as a Site ID.
    Contrail® Views27
  • On Demand Reports

    An on-demand report is a formatted template-based version of a report run with the currently available data and viewed immediately.
    Contrail® Views22
  • Operational

    Fully operational, no known problems.
    Contrail® Views21
  • ORBCOMM

    ORBCOMM is a global satellite data communications company focused exclusively on Machine-to-Machine communications.
    Contrail® Views20
  • Out of Service

    Currently disabled and not available (either under maintenance, or no longer being used).
    Contrail® Views23
  • Predicted Rainfall

    Measurement of predicted rainfall based on Gauge Adjusted Radar Rainfall data.
    Contrail® Views20
  • Predicted Rainfall Accumulation

    Measurement of predicted rainfall accumulation based on Gauge Adjusted Radar Rainfall data.
    Contrail® Views19
  • Quality

    Here the term is used in relation to the value of the data collected.
    Contrail® Views23
  • Quality Validation Codes

    A one or two-character alpha code assigned to processed data (finished value) that indicates the status and quality of the data.
    Contrail® Views20
  • Raw

    This is the value supplied by the source system. It is the value before any conversion or validations are applied.
    Contrail® Views30
  • Reading

    Finished data value with precision (conversion) applied.
    Contrail® Views28
  • Real Time Data Service

    Real Time Data Service. OneRain uses real-time radar data from its vendors and real-time rain gauge data from its customers to calibrate the radar data and deliver rainfall data immediately back to the customer in a variety of formats for decision...
    Contrail® Views18
  • Received

    List of sites that can be received by this receiver, on the same frequency.
    TDMA Views32
  • Receiver

    Base Station, receives on one or more radio frequencies.
    TDMA Views26
  • Red Hat

    Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® is an open source operating system (OS). The OS is open source, but the support subscription has a fee.
    Contrail® Views45
  • Reported

    The date and time of the last data report received by the sensor.
    Contrail® Views23
  • Routes

    List of potential routes from this transmitter to other potential receivers and transceivers ordered by closest to furthest and unblocked to blocked. This information will be used to support capacity planning and latency calculations. Blocked routes are...
    TDMA Views23
  • RWIS

    Road Weather Information System. A network of meteorological, water level and pavement sensors, technically referred to as Environmental Sensor Stations (ESS), located along the highway system.
    Contrail® Views22
  • Sensor

    A sensor is a device used to monitor a specific condition. There are numerous types of sensors, all designed to monitor different things. A stage sensor monitors the depth of water, a rain gauge monitors rainfall, a battery sensor would identify if a...
    Contrail® Views45
  • Sensor Type

    Type of sensor to be added. This is used to set up the default values for the new sensor.
    Sensor types must be defined in the system for which you are adding the new sensor prior to adding a new sensor.

    Examples of Sensor Types: Air...
    Contrail® Views61
  • Serial number

    The serial number must be unique per model to track an item in inventory.
    Inventory Views33
  • SHEF Code

    Standard Hydrologic Exchange Format code, in the form of a two-character code defined by the NWS to describe each measurement taken at a weather station.

    In Contrail, common SHEF codes for a SHEF .A system include HG (Stage/Gauge Height),...
    Contrail® Popular3 Views77
  • Site ID

    A unique name/number assigned to a site by the owner of the site.
    Contrail® Views37
  • Sites

    A Site is a specific location in your data set (and in the real world) where one or more sensors are located. The site is described by elevation, longitude and latitude. The System Administrator may have provided an additional note at the Site Details...
    Contrail® Views36
  • Slideshow

    The Slideshow displays the latest image from each camera, cycling through each camera on a timed interval.

    If you hover over the image in the slideshow, the cycling of images will pause.
    Camera Views31
  • Slot Free Space

    Amount of time that is unassigned, divided by the frame length, represented in percent. (Not sure what Bytes are represented, since it was zero for a completely unassigned frequency).
    TDMA Views25
  • Slot Length

    It is the allocated division of time for a transmitter within a TDMA plan for a frequency. This is one or more whole units of block length. The TDMA plans we currently have use 500 milliseconds as the standard slot length, which with ALERT2 allows up to...
    TDMA Views50

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